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Drinking alcohol increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, esophagus, pharynx, larynx, liver, colon and rectum in men and women and of breast cancer in women. In general, these risks increase after about one daily drink for women and two daily drinks for men. (A drink is defined as 12 ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor.)
The chances of getting liver cancer increase markedly with five or more drinks per day. Heavy alcohol use may also increase the risk of colorectal cancer and leads to greater increases in risk for most of the alcohol-related cancers. The sooner long-term, heavy alcohol use begins, the greater the cancer risk. Also, using alcohol with tobacco is riskier than using either one alone because it further increases the chances of getting cancers of the mouth, throat, and esophagus.
Per capita alcohol consumption: The estimated number of gallons of pure alcohol consumed per person (aged 14 years and older), per year. This measure accounts for the varying alcohol content of wine, beer, and liquor. People as young as 14 are included because a large number of adolescents begin drinking at an early age.
Healthy People 2030 Target
- There are no Healthy People 2030 targets regarding per capita alcohol consumption.
Healthy People 2030 is a set of goals set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Surveillance report #115 – Apparent per capita alcohol consumption: national, state, and regional trends, 1977–2018. April 2020.
Additional Information on Alcohol Consumption
- Alcohol and Cancer Risk. National Cancer Institute.
- Alcohol Use and Cancer. American Cancer Society.
- Publications & Multimedia – NIAAA resources on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
- Alcohol Misuse: Screening and Behavioral Counseling Interventions in Primary Care. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
- Alcohol abuse in cancer patients: a shadow side in the oncological field and research. Glasdam S, Oye C. Med Health Care Philos. 2013;17(3):437-46.
- American Cancer Society guideline for diet and physical activity for cancer prevention. Rock CL, Thomson C, Gansler T, et. al. CA Cancer J Clin. 2020; 70(4): 245-271.
- 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. U.S. Department of Agriculture, and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- Continuous Update Project. World Cancer Research Fund International.
- Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Cancer: a Global Perspective. World Cancer Research Fund, and the American Institute for Cancer Research.
- Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2007-10: Usual Daily Intake of Alcoholic Drinks. National Cancer Institute.